Department of Biological Sciences

Department website: https://www.vanguard.edu/academics/academic-programs/undergrad/biology

Mission:  The Department of Biological Sciences seeks to provide training in a Christian environment needed to prepare students for teaching careers, research positions in industry/academia, admission into medical and health professional schools, and graduate studies in biological sciences.

The Bachelor of Science (B.S.) program provides undergraduate preparation for technical employment, post-baccalaureate study in graduate school, professions such as medicine, and other health professions, and for work in natural resource management. In addition to the Biology B.S. program, there are three possible concentrations that one could specialize in including: Neuroscience, Biomedical Biology and Biology Teacher Education Program.  All majors in Natural and Physical Sciences are expected to make satisfactory academic progress toward graduation. In addition to the requirements established by the University, students must maintain a 2.0 in all major coursework. Further, the Department also requires a minimum grade of C- as completion for pre-requisites in science-related coursework for all students enrolled in MATH, BIOL, ENVR, CHEM, and PSCI courses, regardless of major.

A Biology major considering graduate or professional school should confer with a Biology advisor to plan a program to meet the student’s needs for entrance into such a school or profession. In addition, it is strongly recommended that the student meet with the Pre-Med advisor to make sure that the student is aware of the additional requirements imposed by the Pre-Med Committee.

Biology Concentrations

The Department of Biology offers three concentration areas for students wishing to specialize in four areas: BioMedical Concentration for those students seeking admission to Medical, Dental, Pharmacy and other Professional Post-baccalaureate Programs; Neurobiology for an integration of psychology and neurosciences, Biotechnology for those students seeking employment in the clinical, biotechnology and other related research careers; and VISTA - Vanguard's Integrated STEM Teacher Program (see information below) for those interested in teaching at the middle and high school levels. 

VISTA: Biology Teacher Education Program

The Vanguard Integrated STEM Teacher Achievement Program (VISTA) is one of several Integrated Teaching Education Programs (ITEP) offered at Vanguard. The ITEP program allows for students to complete not only their bachelor’s degree but also the California Teaching Credential within four years. This is a great option for students preparing to teach biology at the secondary school level. The Bachelor of Science in Biology degree with this option is approved by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. Completion of this option will satisfy the subject matter requirement for the Single Subject Teaching Credential in Life Sciences within four years. Students wishing to graduate on a four-year plan are still eligible to enroll in the fifth-year credential program at Vanguard University or some other accredited college or university to complete subject requirements for the California Clear Teaching Credential in Mathematics (see the Graduate Program in Education for these requirements). Students under this option must include BIOL-111 Principles of Cell and Molecular BiologyBIOL-112 Principles of Organismal BiologyBIOL-112L Principles of Organismal Biology LabBIOL-309 MicrobiologyBIOL-309L Microbiology LaboratoryBIOL-311 GeneticsBIOL-311L Genetics Laboratory, and an Ecology Course as a part of their degree program. They should also take ENGL-453 Language, Culture, and Linguistics and POLS-155C American Democracy (see program requirements).

Biological Sciences Program Learning Outcomes

Students majoring in either Biology (B.S.) or Biological Sciences (B.A) have a common core set of coursework and expectations. Thus, all VU Biology graduates should be able to:

  1. Demonstrate proficiency in general biology concepts and theories, as well as in self-selected biology sub-disciplines in order to succeed in careers and graduate programs.
  2. Illustrate sufficient proficiency in calculus, general chemistry, organic chemistry, and physics in order to understand biological concepts involving these disciplines.
  3. Operate basic scientific instruments necessary for biological investigations such as microscopes, centrifuges, spectrophotometers, electrophoresis equipment and pH meters thus demonstrating competency in basic laboratory skills, cell culture, and field techniques. 
  4. Design and conduct experiments –both individually and in small groups– using appropriate strategies such as: collect, organize, analyze, interpret, and present quantitative & qualitative data and incorporate them into the broader context of biological knowledge. 
  5. Analyze and evaluate various types of scientific information including primary research articles, mass media sources and world-wide web information.
  6. Disseminate and present biological data with theoretical and historical perspectives –both in oral and written formats– to a diverse audience.
  7. Use critical and creative thinking to solve problems by compiling and analyzing scientific information from library, electronic, and experimental sources. Effectively apply current technology and scientific methodologies for problem solving.
  8. Articulate historical, current, and theoretical issues relating to biology and society within a Christ-centered worldview that allows for evaluation of the relationship of scientific theories with ethical and religious perspectives, particularly those common to Pentecostal Christians.

Biology

BIOL-100C  Fundamentals of Biology for Non-Majors  3 Credits  

An introduction to the structures and functions of the major plant and animal groups. Focus is directed toward biological principles and problems facing humans in dynamic ecosystems. Lecture three hours. This course fulfills the core curriculum lecture requirement in natural sciences.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-100CL

Terms Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, and Summer.

BIOL-100CL  Fundamentals/Biology for Non-Majors Lab  1 Credit  

Introduction to biological laboratory procedures. Laboratory exercises in molecular biology, metabolism and physiology, structure, ecology, and taxomonic groups. Laboratory four hours. Lab fee. This course fulfills the core curriculum laboratory requirement in natural sciences.

Pre- or Co-Requisite: BIOL-100C

BIOL-111  Principles of Cell and Molecular Biology  3 Credits  

An introductory course for the biological sciences which covers the scientific method, basic biological chemistry, cell structure and function, metabolism and energy transformation, evolution, classification, and other related topics. This course fulfills the core curriculum lecture requirement in Natural Sciences; however, this course is designed for Biology majors.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-111L

BIOL-111L  Principles of Biology Lab  1 Credit  

Pre- or Co-Requisite: Take BIOL-111

BIOL-112  Principles of Organismal Biology  3 Credits  

An introductory course for the biological sciences which covers the kingdoms of living organisms, plant and animal physiology, population genetics, biodiversity, ecology, and other related topics.

Prerequisite: BIOL-111C and BIOL-111CL or equivalent.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-112L

BIOL-112L  Principles of Organismal Biology Lab  1 Credit  

Topics in this course are designed to complement lectures presented in BIOL-112. Students will conduct a broad survey of investigations selected to optimize the understanding of basic laboratory techniques and biological principles including field trips, dissection, collections, ecosystem classification and evaluation. Lab and field trip fee.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-112

BIOL-204C  Human Anatomy  3 Credits  

Introductory study of the gross physical structure, cellular makeup and physiological function of elements within the nine major organ systems. Lecture three hours. This course fulfills the core curriculum lecture requirement in Natural Sciences; however, this course is designed for Biology majors

Co-Requisite: BIOL-204CL

BIOL-204CL  Human Anatomy Laboratory  1 Credit  

Laboratory study introducing the primary functional and supportive components within the skeletal, muscular, digestive, urinary, nervous, respiratory, reproductive, and cardiovascular systems. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee. This course fulfills the core curriculum laboratory requirement in Natural Sciences; however, this course is designed for Biology majors.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-204C

BIOL-205  Principles of Human Physiology  4 Credits  

Investigates the fundamental physiological processes in humans using a systems approach to student integrated functions. The course will explore the functions of the human body emphasizing homeostasis and integration at the biochemical, cellular, organ, and system levels. The systems studied will include nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, endocrine, reproductive, and immunity. This course is a combined lecture and laboratory course fulfilling the physiology requirement for RN to BSN student. This is not a suitable course for Pre-Licensure Nursing students or Biology Majors. This requirement meets the science lab requirement for all other students. Lab fee required.

Terms Typically Offered: Spring.

BIOL-208  Biology of Nutrition  4 Credits  

The course emphasizes the biology of nutrition as applied to metabolic and physiologic principles underlying digestion and absorption of nutrients, chemical structure, and metabolism of nutrients, the biochemical role of nutrients in maintaining health, and the effects of over- and under-nutrition on health and on disease pathogenesis. The students will gain an understanding of the biology of macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins) and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, and water). Weight management and dietary analysis will also be discussed. Laboratory activities provide real-world insight into the biology of nutrition and will assist students in understanding how proper nutrition can optimize body system functions. This course is a combined lecture and laboratory course fulfilling the physiology requirement for RN to BSN student. This is not a suitable course for Pre-Licensure Nursing students or Biology Majors. This requirement meets the science lab requirement for all other students. Lab fee required.

Terms Typically Offered: Spring and Summer.

BIOL-209  Principles of Microbiology  3 Credits  

An introduction to the study of micro-organisms: their occurrence and importance to humans. Major concepts of general microbiology are discussed, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types: structural organization of cells; cellular metabolism, regulation of metabolism, and genetics; host-parasite relationships, nutrition, growth, control mechanisms, immunology and serology; recombinant DNA technology; growth of microbial cells; and controlling growth by chemical and physical means. Bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and viruses are studied. Special emphasis is given to infectious diseases and the organisms that cause these diseases.

Terms Typically Offered: Fall and Spring.

BIOL-209L  Principles/Microbiology Lab  1 Credit  

The laboratory course will introduce students to basic microbiology techniques and principles. Students will learn procedures for handling micro-organisms and establishing pure cultures. Additionally, the following basic microbiology laboratory protocols will be covered: specimen collection, cultivation, analysis, identification, and reporting. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee.

Terms Typically Offered: Spring.

BIOL-210C  Fundamentals of Biology  3 Credits  

An introduction to the structures and functions of the major plant and animal groups. Focus is directed toward biological principles and problems facing humans in dynamic ecosystems. Lecture three hours. This course fulfills the core curriculum lecture requirement in Natural Sciences; however, this course is designed for non-science majors.

BIOL-210CL  Fundamentals of Biology Lab  1 Credit  

Introduction to biological laboratory procedures. Laboratory exercises in molecular biology, metabolism and physiology, structure, ecology, and taxonomic groups. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee. This course fulfills the core curriculum laboratory requirement in Natural Sciences; however, this course is designed for non-science majors.

BIOL-220  Cell Biology  3 Credits  

This course provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of biology that center on the cell. Focus will be placed on cellular structure and function, fundamental metabolism, and molecular genetics. Lecture three hours.

Prerequisite: BIOL-112

Co-Requisite: BIOL-220L

BIOL-220L  Cell Biology Lab  1 Credit  

This course provides a working understanding of basic principles paramount to the study of biological sciences. Students will have a fundamental understanding of the scientific method, the cell, cellular structure, cellular respiration, DNA processes, protein synthesis, cellular reproduction, and genetics. This course prepares the student to think critically and analyze data. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee.

Prerequisite: BIOL-112L

Co-Requisite: BIOL-220

BIOL-234  Principles of Neuroscience  4 Credits  

The course is an introduction to the human nervous system and how the brain processes sensory information, controls actions, and learns through experience and emotions. Each lesson provides a broad understanding of the fundamentals of brain structures and its role in behavior. The course also aims to introduce the student to brain science behind sensory development, language acquisition and learning.

Terms Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, and Summer.

BIOL-291  Special Topic in Biology  1 Credit  

Study of a special topic in life science. May be repeated for credit. Lab fee.

BIOL-292  Special Topic in Biology  2 Credits  

Study of a special topic in life science. May be repeated for credit. Lab fee.

BIOL-293  Special Topic in Biology  3 Credits  

Study of a special topic in life science. May be repeated for credit. Lab fee.

BIOL-294  Special Topic in Biology  4 Credits  

Study of a special topic in life science. May be repeated for credit. Lab fee.

BIOL-302  Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy  3 Credits  

Study of the similarities and differences in the structure and function of chordates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals) in both ancient and modern forms, with particular emphasis on human organ systems. Embryological development and features are integrated into the discussion of each organ system. Lecture three hours. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: BIOL-112

Co-Requisite: BIOL-302L

BIOL-302L  Comp Vertebrate Anatomy Lab  1 Credit  

Study of the essential embryological and morphological features of representative chordates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals), with particular emphasis given to human organ systems. Laboratory exercises incorporate dissection on preserved specimens. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: BIOL-112

Co-Requisite: BIOL-302

BIOL-303  Neurobiology Learning & Memory  3 Credits  

This course introduces students to the methods, theories, and concepts that are central to the field of learning and memory. The course uses a combination of lectures and student-led discussions. The course highlights the molecular and cellular processes that are responsible for the synaptic changes that are responsible for learning and the formation of memory. Students will learn how changes in synapses generate, stabilize, consolidate, and maintain memories. Topics covered include system and synaptic consolidation, reconsolidation, memory systems, and the neural pathways involved in different types of memories.

BIOL-304  Human Physiology  3 Credits  

This course will investigate the fundamental physiological processes in humans using a systems approach to study integrated functions. It will explore the functions of the human body emphasizing homeostasis at biochemical, cellular, organ, and system levels. The systems studied will include nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive. Lecture three hours.

Prerequisite: BIOL-111C; BIOL-204C; or other college biology course with permission of instructor.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-304L

BIOL-304L  Human Physiology Lab  1 Credit  

This course is designed to complement BIOL-304 investigating fundamental physiological processes in humans. The systems studied will include nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-304

BIOL-305  Physiology of Vertebrates  3 Credits  

Principles of animal physiology with emphasis on vertebrates. Lecture three hours. Offered in alternate years.

BIOL-305L  Physiology of Vertebrates Lab  1 Credit  

Laboratory course examining the principles of animal physiology with emphasis on vertebrates. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee. Offered in alternate years.

BIOL-309  Microbiology  3 Credits  

Biology of micro-organisms: their occurrence and importance to humans. Topics will include microbial cell structure and function, metabolism, microbial genetics, and the role of micro-organisms in disease and immunity. Lecture three hours.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-309L

BIOL-309L  Microbiology Laboratory  1 Credit  

Laboratory three hours. Lab fee.

Co-Requisite: BIOL-309

BIOL-311  Genetics  3 Credits  

A study of the principles and the physical basis of heredity, biochemical aspects of gene actions, and social implications of heredity. Lecture three hours. Offered in alternate years.

BIOL-311L  Genetics Laboratory  1 Credit  

Laboratory three hours. Lab fee. Offered in alternate years.

BIOL-315  General Ecology  3 Credits  

An introduction to the interactions between organisms and their physical and biological environment. Important factors and processes influencing organisms within both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will be studied. Lecture three hours.

BIOL-315L  Ecology Field and Lab Practicum  1 Credit  

This class provides hands-on experiences in the laboratory and in the field, enhances the student's understanding of basic environmental science and ecological concepts presented in BIOL-315. The laboratory experiments are oriented towards demonstrated basic principles of ecology and mastering modern research and field techniques. The individual exercises are from an excellent notebook on current protocols used in ecology. Occasional field sampling will be required. Three hours of lab per week. Lab fee.

BIOL-335  Biology of Cancer  3 Credits  

This course is designed to study cancer from both a cellular and a clinical perspective. Characteristics of aberrant cell growth, proliferation and metastasis will be studied with a focus on the genetic changes that occur in cancer cells. Clinical aspects of cancer that will be discussed will include the classification, carcinogenesis, epidemiology, prevention and treatment of cancer. Course fee.

BIOL-345C  Mountain Field Biology  4 Credits  

A study of biota and communities of the mountains and factors affecting distributions, reproductions, and physiology of plant and animal life. A significant component of the course focuses on geology and the geological forces involved in mountain and land formation. Lab fee. Much of the course consists of a 2-week field trip through the Sierra Nevadas typically during May. Lab and field trip fee. Lab fee covers lab project materials, food, transportation, and accommodations during the two-week long trip. Any special diet or physical accommodations must be approved by the instructor prior to enrollment. This course fulfills the core curriculum lecture and lab science requirement in natural sciences.

BIOL-346C  Desert Field Ecology  4 Credits  

A study of biota and communities of desert environments and factors affecting distributions, reproduction, and physiology of plant and animal life. A significant component of the course focuses on geology and the geological forces involved in mountain and land formation. One week of the course consists of a field trip through the arid regions of Southern California typically during spring break. Course will fulfill core curriculum science requirement. Lab fee. Lab fee will cover lab project materials, food, transportation, and accommodations during the two-week long trip. Any special diet or physical accommodations must be approved by the instructor prior to enrollment. This course fulfills the core curriculum lecture and lab science requirement in Natural Sciences.

BIOL-348C  Coastal Ecology  4 Credits  

Coastal Ecology examines the ecological processes at the interface between land and sea in order to provide an understanding of the coastal environment, how terrestrial and marine systems are intricately connected, and how human activities can impact both. Much of the course consists of local field trips in coastal and marine environments and in particular a week-long field trip usually during spring break. Course will fulfill core curriculum science requirement. Lab fee. Lab fee covers lab project materials, food, transportation, and accommodations during the week- long trip. Any special diet or physical accommodations must be approved by the instructor prior to enrollment. This course fulfills the core curriculum lecture and lab science requirement in Natural Sciences.

BIOL-365  Neurobiology of Learning and Memory  3 Credits  

This course introduces students to the methods, theories, and concepts that are central to the field of learning and memory. The course uses a combination of lectures and student-led discussions. The course highlights the molecular and cellular processes that are responsible for the synaptic changes that are responsible for learning and the formation of memory. Students will learn how changes in synapses generate, stabilize, consolidate, and maintain memories. Topics covered include system and synaptic consolidation, reconsolidation, memory systems, and the neural pathways involved in different types of memories.

Prerequisite: BIOL-220, BIOL-220L

Co-Requisite: Take BIOL-365L

Terms Typically Offered: Fall, even years.

BIOL-365L  Neurobiology of Learning/Memory Lab  1 Credit  

This course supports the BIOL-365 lecture and must be taken concurrently.

Terms Typically Offered: Fall, even years.

BIOL-385  Research Methods in Neurobiology  3 Credits  

This course provides students with an empirically-based research experience in the area of behavioural neurosceince. Students will be using an animal model of addition to study the neural mechanisms behind learning and memory. Students will gain a basic understanding of proper research methodology, memory consolidation, reconsolidation, conditioned place prefereance paradigm, brain anaromy, and pharmacology. Students will have hands-on experience learning various techniques, including animal handling and injection, and behavioral analysis. Terms Typically offered: Spring, even years.

Terms Typically Offered: Spring, even years.

BIOL-402  Histology  3 Credits  

Study of the cells and tissues comprising each human organ system. Discussion focuses on structural and functional components in both intracellular and extracellular compartments, and cellular interaction within and among different organ systems. Lecture three hours. Offered in alternate years.

BIOL-402L  Histology Lab  1 Credit  

Laboratory study of the cells and tissues comprising each human organ system. Particular emphasis is placed upon learning to identify the features making each tissue and organ unique. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee. Offered in alternate years.

BIOL-403  Biotechnology  6 Credits  

Methodology and application in biotechnology. The following topics will be covered: genetic engineering techniques for introducing a gene for a desired protein into a cell with vectors, techniques for growing bacteria and yeast to produce a desired protein, cell transformation by electroporation, blue/white screening for selection of a colony with successful transformation with the desired vector, identification of a plasmid with PCR and DNA sequencing, use of enzyme assays to measure protein concentration in solutions, fed-batch yeast fermentation, mammalian cell culture techniques, and analysis of protein expression by Western blot. Lab fee.

BIOL-404  Neuropharmacology  3 Credits  

This course is designed to give students a fundamental understanding of the biochemical bases of behavior as well as the effects of drugs on the central nervous system and behavior. Topics covered include basic principles of neuropharmacology, pharmacokinetics, neurotransmitter systems, neural substrates of drug action, and neuropharmacology of neural disorders.

BIOL-404L  Neuropharmacology Laboratory  1 Credit  

This laboratory course supports the BIOL-404 lecture and must be taken concurrently.

Terms Typically Offered: Spring, even years.

BIOL-405  Bioinformatics  3 Credits  

Introduction to bioinformatic resources/methods for biologists. Topics include: biological databases, sequence alignment, gene and protein structure prediction, molecular phylogenetics, genomics and proteomics. Students will gain practical experience with bioinformatics tools and develop basic skills in the collection and presentation of bioinformatics data.

BIOL-405L  Bioinformatics Laboratory  1 Credit  

Introduction to bioinformatic resources/methods for biologists. Topics include: biological databases, sequence alignment, gene and protein structure prediction, molecular phylogenetics, genomics and proteomics. Students will gain practical experience with bioinformatics tools and develop basic skills in the collection and presentation of bioinformatics data. This lab course must be taken concurrently with lecture BIOL-405.

BIOL-432  Neuroscience  3 Credits  

The study of the nervous system from the cellular physiology of the neuron to complex structure and function of the central nervous system. Emphasis will be given to the cellular neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. This course will give an excellent foundation for understanding the brain and the nervous system. Students will critically read and discuss the scientific literature and learn to critically evaluate experimental neuroscience. Lecture three hours.

BIOL-432L  Neuroscience Lab  1 Credit  

Laboratory three hours. Lab fee.

BIOL-440  Molecular Biology  3 Credits  

The study of the genome in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Introduction to and an analysis of modern molecular biology techniques are presented including: replication, transcription, translation, genetic engineering, cloning, gene expression, sequencing and genetic analysis. Lecture three hours. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: BIOL-220

Co-Requisite: BIOL-440L

BIOL-440L  Techniques in Molecular Biology  1 Credit  

The study of the genome in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Introduction to and an analysis of modern molecular biology techniques are presented including: genetic engineering, cloning, gene expression, sequencing and genetic analysis. This course prepares the student to develop the following critical skills: independent thinking, lab management, record keeping, and project development. Laboratory three hours. Lab fee. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: BIOL-220

Co-Requisite: BIOL-440

BIOL-450  UG Research or Internship Program  1-4 Credits  

This course may be taken for a maximum of four (4) units in one semester. A maximum of six (6) combined units credit for BIOL-450 or BIOL-485 apply to graduation. This course is designed with the purpose of providing students the opportunity to conduct research off-campus at universities or STEM companies in the community. This course promotes early entry into the workplace for the student through part-time employment. This course requires actual work experience be sought in a biotech or STEM-focused business firm providing an opportunity to integrate classroom teaching in practical application under the direct supervision of the assigned instructor. Students are responsible for completing a project report and presenting their research results in BIOL-499C.

Prerequisite: BIOL-112

Terms Typically Offered: Summer.

BIOL-451  Immunology  3 Credits  

The study of molecular and cell biology of specific and nonspecific immune responses in mammals, with special emphasis on human immune systems. Reviews experimental support for current immunological theories. Roles of immunology in human health and disease will be studied.

BIOL-451L  Immunology Lab  1 Credit  

A laboratory course designed to introduce students to current clinical and research procedures in immunology. Includes techniques, such as ELISA, Immunoprecipitation, cell culture techniques, T cell activation, Western blot, and blood cells recognition. These techniques are utilized in biological, biochemical research and clinical laboratories. Lab fee.

BIOL-455  Biology Teaching Internship  1-3 Credits  

The student will meet for regular hours each week for classes and/or meetings that are established at the beginning of the semester with the supervising professor. The intern assists an instructor in planning and conducting lecture and/or laboratory sessions and with other assigned teaching related duties. This course may be taken for 1-3 units per semester. May be repeated for a maximum of six units.

BIOL-470  Special Topic in Biology  1-4 Credits  

Study a special topic in Life Science. May be repeated for credit. May have lab and field trip fees in some cases.

BIOL-480  Individual Studies:  1-4 Credits  

May be repeated for credit. May have lab fee and field trip fee in some cases.

BIOL-485  Undergrad Biological Research  1-4 Credits  

This course provides the student with an empirically-based research experience in the biological sciences. Emphasis will be placed on project management, safety, instrumentation, solution preparation, and research documentation skills. This course is a variable credit course. Two units are recommended for all biology majors. It is expected that a research report be completed at the conclusion of the research project and an oral presentation of the results be given in BIOL-499C. This course may be repeated for credit. Lab fee.

Prerequisite: BIOL-112 and BIOL-112L

BIOL-488  Biology Senior Project  2 Credits  

An advanced course providing the opportunity for a student to create a novel and independent intellectual work by comparing, contrasting and synthesizing recent research and his/her cumulative knowledge and understanding in the biological sciences. The precise nature, scope and format of the project must be developed and approved under the guidance of the instructor and in collaboration with the student's academic advisor. Senior projects are typically initiated in the Fall. The project results must also be presented in BIOL-499C. Lab fee.

BIOL-499C  Capstone Seminar in Biology  2 Credits  

This course includes analysis and evaluation of current research in biology and the integration of faith and learning in the biological sciences. An oral presentation of BIOL-485 or BIOL-488 is required. In-class presentations by faculty and guests are a part of the course. This course fulfills the Core Curriculum Capstone requirement for Biology majors.

Prerequisite: BIOL-485 or BIOL-488